Rapid Diagnostic Test Development

Medical diagnostic tests that are quick and easy to perform are known as rapid diagnostic tests. Today, prompt detection and differentiation of pathogens in individual cases remain critical for advancing clinical management, infection control, and effective public health response to emerging pathogens. They rely on specific monoclonal antibodies or antigens to determine the ongoing infection with a particular pathogen or the level of immunity to a specific pathogen. Rapid diagnostic tests are widely used for point-of-care diagnostics. Rapid diagnostic tests are used in situations requiring urgent medical screenings or pre-screening.

They also need no extra resources, making them suitable for use in medical facilities with limited resources, such as rural areas, workplaces, schools, homes, or overcrowded facilities. Primarily used with symptomology, rapid diagnostic tests can help diagnose diseases with various pathogens. Their use is becoming increasingly widespread due to their low time to results, simplicity of use, ease of access, affordability, ease of use in crowded places, as mentioned in the previous sections, and their many public health benefits. In addition, with combo rapid test kits, rapid diagnostic tests can be performed with a single sample for diseases with similar signs and symptoms, saving time in making the correct diagnosis and allowing the proper treatment to be administered without wasting time. Rapid diagnostic tests are currently used to detect various infectious diseases, including COVID-19, influenza, HIV, tuberculosis, hepatitis, malaria, and dengue.

Although rapid diagnostic tests are the answer to most needs, the increasing number of variants in pathogens, mutations, etc., have created the need to develop new rapid diagnostic test kits. Rapid diagnostic test development is designing a rapid diagnostic test to confirm the presence of a wide range of pathogens, biomarkers, and antibodies of a given type. In the rapid diagnostic test development process, there are several variables to consider, with the choice of detection reagents, test materials, and manufacturing methods all influencing the accuracy and reliability of the test.

First and foremost, the biology of the target molecule is the keystone of rapid diagnostic test development. The optimal flow time of your test will influence the choice of nitrocellulose (NC) membrane. This step will influence every option in the design of the test. The specimen to be used then influences the choice of materials to be used in the test. Specimen type (e.g., blood, urine, or saliva) and volume will determine the selection of the most suitable absorption pads. In rapid diagnostic test development, the sandwich or competitive assay type is chosen depending on the size of the target molecule. Sandwich assays rely on two separate antibodies binding to different sites of the same analyte molecule. At the same time, competitive tests can detect smaller molecules, such as mycotoxins or cortisol, and larger analytes, such as insulin. Material selection is crucial in rapid diagnostic test development, as with any application. Choosing the right sample pad, conjugate release pad, and nitrocellulose membrane all play a role in the sensitivity and reliability of the test developed. For example, nitrocellulose membranes must allow sufficient time for the interaction of analyte and reagents in the test and control lines, and results must be available within this time.

This is effective in balancing test speed and sensitivity. After selection, the selected membranes should be tested, and the best membrane should be set to match the balance between flow rate and sensitivity. The antibodies for detection and capture in your lateral flow test can be polyclonal or monoclonal. Once antibody binding sites on the analyte have been selected, the next step involves screening for potential antibody clones and measuring the amount of antibody-antigen complex formed after incubation. The final step is to select the labels that can be conjugated to the detection antibodies and choose the appropriate reader. Based on the lower and upper limits of quantifying your test-reader combination, the test’s sensitivity can be determined.

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The production of rapid diagnostic tests in the field of biotechnology has increased dramatically, especially with the worldwide outbreak of covid.

Rapid Diagnostic Test Dev.

Rapid diagnostic test development is designing a rapid diagnostic test to confirm the presence of a wide range of pathogens, biomarkers, and antibodies.